LINGUISTIC POINTERS OF AGRARIAN SOCIO-ECONOMIC FOCUS SHIFTS ENDANGERING THE BOOST IN FARMING OCCUPATION IN MALUMFASHI.



Abstract
Farming is one of the best traditional occupation of Hausa people of northern Nigeria. It is described as the fundamental support of the economy of Hausa people. Most of the agrarian villages and towns of Hausa people were established by farming communities. Malumfashi town is one of the Hausa settlement founded by farming communities. Just like any other Hausa farming community, Malumfashi is known as the best area where abundance of farm products is produced in Katsina State. Alas! In the present 21st century, there are some unwanted utterances, which are found going round within the farming agrarian communities in Malumfashi area. These unwanted utterances, are acting as linguistic pointers, describing the unwanted attitudes of the labor force in the labour market of farming in Malumfashi. These unwanted frightening utterances are endangering the continuity of the boost in faming occupation in Malumfashi area, Katsina State and northern Nigeria in general. This paper examined some of these linguistic pointers which are endangering the farming business. It touches all the stages clocking round the routine of farming activities in an agrarian society of Malumfashi. It begins from the stage of clearing of farmland, tilling and  ploughing it, sowing of crops, weeding of the grasses, harvesting of the ripped and done crops and finally to the stage of storing of the farm products at home. At the end, some crucial advises were given as the ways to prevent farming occupation from dying down or total extinction from the Hausa land.
 
 
  • Introduction
First and foremost, before indulging into the description of the utterances which are pointers to the endangerment of farming business in Malumfashi area, it is deem right to start by defining some important words relating to the research studies.
Language has been defined by some scholars as the medium by which culture of a certain society is transmitted. While on the other hand, sociolinguistic is defined as the study of language in society. Furthermore, some writers termed it to be the studies of all the socio-cultural differences between languages and the varieties of linguistic usage that exists in a given society (Yakasai, 2012:24; Fellmann, 2010:123;  Babatunde, 2007:147).
 On the other hand, farming is defined as growing of crops and tendering of livestock (Getis, 2011:319). But, in Hausa language, farming is described as growing of crops done by the process of tilling the land to form ridges and sows grains for production of its natural bounties. Hoes are used to weed the unwanted grasses, which makes the wanted crops to feel free to grow without any hindrance (Alhassan, 1982:48; Baƙo, 2014:16; Bargery, 1993:822; CNHN, 2006:359).
 In Malumfashi area, just like any other Hausa society, there are of two types of farming which are being practiced, based on the seasons of the year. The first type of farming is rainy season farming, which is done from the month of May-October. The second type is known as dry seasons farming, which is done from the month of November-April of each seasonal year (Zarruƙ, 1987:26; Malumfashi, 2006:69; Kallah, 2014:6).
Malumfashi area, as the case study area, is popularly known as "Ҟasar Galadiman Katsina" (i.e. the area being overseen by the Staff officer of Emir of Katsina) (Ҟanƙara, 1991:5). It is a densely and marshy "fadama" area, filled with trees and grasses. It is the main producer and provider of agricultural products in Katsina state of Nigeria (Isa, 2014:21). Guinea corn was the first type of crop experimented and found it doing well. That gave rise to naming the area as "Jinƙau Birnin Dawa"(i.e. "Jinƙau", the city of guinea corn). This praise epithet was said to be the reason why most of its agrarian surrounded villages has the word "Dawa" attached to their names. Examples of some of them are "Borin Dawa", "Ҟauyen Dawo", "Ba-dawa"(Malamawa) and "Gidan Dawa."  According to a legendry oral saying, that Malumfashi was an orchard place with cool weather and nice breeze where, in those past days,  emirs and other  people passing by, stop their caravans, to rest for a while  (Lumfasawa). The word "Lumfasawa" (resting) later became "Malumfasa" (the place for resting) and finally it became "Malumfashi" (the place for resting) (Malumfashi, 2006:19; Ado, 1987:22; Mamman,1996:47;  Ҟanƙara, 1991:1; Usman, 1981:195-197; Charanci, 1999:121]).
The aim of this paper is to buttress out some linguistic pointers, causing setbacks and endangerments to the farming business. That is to say, the paper aimed at pointing out the area of shift in trust between the farm owners and laborers who are entrusted with the labor and care taking of the farms. The shift in trust is endangering to the continuity of the boost in farming. The endangering utterances being uttered by the farmland caretakers and laborers are frightening the hearts of many stake holders in farming.Most of them have either reduced the volume of the activities of their farming business or completely stop doing the farming and abandoned the farmland. This is really dangerous to the boost in farming business in northern Nigeria (Ado, 2009:3; Ado, 2009:118).
  • Agrarian Farming Agency-Labor Trusts
 Agency is an act of entrusting ones business into the hand of another person. The laborers are the class of people who are entrusted with farming business. They are the being entrusted because they are the backbone to all the farming activities being done in the northern Nigeria. The laborers live in the villages where most of the farmlands, being cultivated, are located. This is the reason why they are termed as "Ҟauyawa" (uncivilized villagers).  
Most of the owners of farmland, who indulges in large scale farming businesses, lives in the towns and cities. They do not live in the villages, like the laborers. Therefore owners’ of farmlands have to entrust most of the farming activities and labors into the hands of the laborers, who are living in the places where the farmlands are.  This entrustment, in Hausa language, is what is known as: “wakilcin gona" (agency in farming) or "ma'aikatan gona" (farm labourers/ labour workers) or "wakilci"(agency or being another's representative) (Abraham,1978:706; Mani, 2007:26; CNHN, 2006:466; Skinner, 2007:4; Alhassan;1982:10; Funtua, 2010:66).This entrustment is a situation whereby owner of a farmland (farmer/farm-landlord) appoints a trusted person who will be overseeing all the works and some other activities (of farming) done in his farmland, on his behalf (CNHN, 2006:466).
In the present days 21st century, it was found out that, instead of the laborers to handle the farmlands trusts being shouldered into their hands, they end up in cheating their landlords. This is a shift of trust. Before these days, Malumfashi villagers were not known with these types of attitudes. Even though, most of the laborers are semi- literate in the Western Education, but there are majority them who are literate in Qur’anic Education. In some villages, the laborers are Almajiris (children from Qur'anic School) or Maguzawa (pagans) who were known for trustworthiness (Ado, 1987:21-22; Ado, 2011:164).
 In fact, the main principle linguistic pointer which triggered up this research is the bridge of trust utterance, which the laborers do to their land lords, as
" Wawanka Nawa?"
 (How many fools do you have?)
Researches revealed that, during their leisure times, the laborers who are either working for the owners of farm lands or who were entrusted to oversee the affairs of farmlands ( i.e. "Wakilan Gona" or Farms Agents), discusses most of these "bridge-of-trust utterances". These utterances are describing most of the atrocities they do to their landlords on their farm lands, which are entrusted into their hands to either over see or paid to work on them.
According to CNHN (2006: 471); Abraham (1987:930); Furniss ( 1997:119); Skinner (2007:67), the word "wawa" is defined as a "fool". Alas! Somebody trusted his wealth into your hand, and you are calling him a fool. What type of life is this? Does it mean there is no trust in life?
To buttress it the more, Bunza (2014:4) brought out 112 words and phrases explaining the acts of foolishness (wawanci) in Hausa society, as unwiseness, looseness, unmindfulness, unawareness, confusions, chiaossness, biasness etc. These are all utterances referring to the unwanted behaviors, which are very discouraging for the continuous boost in farming business (CNHN, 2006:472)
  • Pointers to the Endangering Attitudes of Laborers and Farms Caretakers in
Farming Life Circle Entrustments
According to the research conducted, it was found out that farming has ten  stages of life circle in Malumfashi area. These life circle stages are clearing of farm , ridges making, crop sowing, weeding of grasses, fertilizer application, crops' reaping, cutting and collection of corns' head,  threshing and  winnowing,  carrying and storing of grains at home. At all  of these stages, bridge of trust  is being done by both the laborers and farm caretakers, which are endangering the boost in farming business The paper is going to study each stage and bring out the linguistic pointer which points outs the unwanted attitudes.
3.1 Stage of Farmland Clearing
Clearing of farmlands is the first agrarian work done by farmers when rainy season is approaching. Farm land owners employ the labor of many laborers to clear their farms. Research shows that whenever work is entrusted into the hands of laborers or farm land agents, they bride the contract by either not doing the job very well or they spent the money without doing the job. Below are some endangering utterances which are pointers to the act of bridge of the incredible trust of farming works done by laborers or farm agents:
Amajar Sharar Gona
(un proffer Farm land clearing)
Muguwar/Mugunyar Sharar Gona
(Bad/Vulnarable Farm Land Clearing)
Ҟazamar Shara
 (Dirty Clearance of Farmland)
 
    According to Mal. Inusa Mai Kifi,[1] whenever the owner of farmlands comes to see the work which he heavily paid for, and meets the unwanted acts of mistrust, they, out of anger and surprise, says the followings:
"Kash! An yi mani ƙazamar shara"
 (Oh! They did dirty clearance to me!)
or
"La'ilaha Ilallahu! An yi mani Amajar shara!"
             (There is no god but Allah! Bad clearing is done to me)
 
These are linguistic pointers to the shift in trust in farming occupation. Many people tend to abandon the farming business due to these acts of mistrust. One has already paid for a work and the work is not done properly as how it should be. This means that, right from the word go, the owner of the farm will never gain from the business he heavy put his wealth in.
3.2 Ridges Making Stage
            When enough rainfall is gotten for sowing, by the farming tradition of Malumfashi area, farmers would like to make ridges on their farm lands, before sowing crops. This facilitates the quick growth of seedlings. Still, at this stage the farm agents and laborers do a lot of havoc to their farm land lords. The followings are some of the linguistic pointers which describe the act of mistrust done at this stage of ridges making:
"Huɗar Ha'inci" (Treacherous ridges making)
"Huɗar Banza" (Bad ridges making)
"Mugunyar Huɗa"(Wicked act of ridges making)
"Huɗar sama-sama" (Light ridges making)
 
Malam Abdulbasiru Kwarsu[2] and Alhaji Bello Cumas[3] said that, the laborers who are controlling the Cows that make ridges, forces the cows to do the above mentioned treacherous acts out of ill-heart. This is an act of mistrust! It is done by way of refusing to lose cows' chain properly, which is known as "Ҟin sakin sarƙa." This is a situation whereby if the chain of the ploughing cows is not let loose, the ridges will not be done well. Grasses will not be covered well, as expected. Therefore, sowing of crops will also not be done well. This is discouraging the stakeholders who are going into farming business.
3.3 Crops’ Sowing Stage
            Sowing crop is an act of placing seed in the ground and covers it with soil (Bargery, 1993:944). At the crop sowing stage, farms agents and laborers also portrays a lot of endangering behaviors which makes stakeholders in farming business to drawn back from doing the business, in Malumfashi area.  Below are some of the utterances which are linguistic pointers to the unwanted attitudes of laborers who sow crops for farm owners:
"Cika kuɗin iri" (High price of seeds)
"Cika kuɗin shuka" (high price for seed-sowing labor)
"Sanya yara shuka" (Employing the labor of children)
"Ҟwangen hatsin shuka" (Hiding/Reducing of seeds)
"Satar hatsin shuka" (Stealing of seeds)
The above utterances which are glaring to the types of paid work done to stakeholder in farming are very discouraging to the boost in farming business in Malumfashi area. It is always disheartening to hear labourers and farm caretakers uttering the above utterances, which describes what they do to farm owners as part of the attitudes of "Wawanka Nawa?" (How Many Fools Do You Have?)
On the other hand, the laborers also cheat the farmer by making bad sowing of grains for him. The below listed utterances are the linguistic pointers which describe the bad work done to Stakeholders (Farm Owners) by laborers, as follows:
"Rashin take shuka sosoai" (Un-proffer sowing)
"Zuba-a-taka-iska" (Puttinng seeds on groung, without  
 matching it)
"Doguwar tuƙa"/"Nisanta Shuka" (Long sowing steps)
"Tsallaken shuka"/"Tsallaken kunya" (Jumping of ridges)
"Tsallaken ƙofi" (Jumping of ridges in re-planting)
"Shukar dumbuje" (Sowing many grains in a hole)
 
This is serious! One paid for a work to be done to him, but the work is not done to him on the proper ways. The above utterances are pointers of the deceits and other act of wickedness done to stake holders in farming by farms agents and laborers, who are trusted to take care of planting crops.  Alhaji Rabi'u Mai Rediyo [4]  and Malam Tsallha[5] said that, most of the times, their farm agents will put some money on top of the actual bargained prize for planting of seeds on their farm lands. They further stated that, the agents may collect money with the agreement that, adult will do the sowing, but at the end they will employ children to do it. When children are employed by farm agents, they pay them little money.
Again, the agents may collect some amount of measurement of seeds, higher than what to be sawn on the farmland he is entrusted to take care of. Instead of returning the remnants of the seed, to the farm owner, they just do away with it. This is a cheat on the part of the farmland owner..
3.4  Crops' Weeding Stage
Tilling, turning and hoeing the soil or clearing farm or grass or weeds is the act of "noma" (weeding) (Bargery,1993:822).When it comes to weeding the crop, the farm agents and laborers also cheats the  farm owners (Stakeholders) by conniving with the laborers, to hick the price of the weeding. The following utterances are
the linguistic pointers which describes the menace, as thus:
"Tsadar Noma" (High price of weeding)
"Haɗe kan cinikin noma"
(Conniving in bargaining the prize of weeding)
"Sangam:Noman Sauri" (Past weeding)
"Mugun Noma" (Bad Weeding)
"Ciron fige" (Bad crop reduction while weeding)
"Ciron Fartanya" (Using hoe to reduce seedlings)
"Tsambaren noma" (Un weeding some areas on farm)
"Ja-rufe"/"Jaye-rufe" (Covering some un weeded weeds)
 
To buttress the conduct of the above mentioned utterances, Malam Muhammadu Shamsuddeen Ɗanfili [6] testified the facts that conniving with laborers, on the prize of weeding a farm, is the usual act of farm agents. An agent gets laborers from his village, so that he makes neat conniving and cheats his farm landlord lots money. The followings are the slogans which describes the above mention attitude:
 
"Ci, Mu Ci" (Eat, let us also eat)
"Cuwa-Cuwa (Being on qui vive)
(Gwajo-Gwajo, 2014:15).
 
From the look of things,  by mare observations of the above utterances, it will be understood that the luck-worm of bridge of trust has gone deep into the life of farming business in Malumfashi area and Hausa land in general. This are acts of corruptions in the farming business, which if not checked, the farming business will boost no more in the next generation of people of Malumfashi area.
3.5  Manure or Fertilizer Application Stage
"Taki" is the name representing manure or fertilizer (Bargery, 1993:980). It is usually being applied on farms after the first and second weeding stages of grasses. At this stage, the research conducted revealed the following utterances, which are pointers describing the destructive attitudes which the farm land agents and laborers do at fertilizer application stage:
"Ҟwangen Taki" (Reduction of Fertilizer)
"Ҟaranta Taki" (Applying little Fertilizer)
"Ҟwangen Maganin Feshi" (Reduction of Insecticides)
"Ha'incin Taki (Treacherous act of applying fertilizer)
"Aringizon Taki" (Dishonesty/demanding fertilizer more
than required)
 
All the above mentioned utterances are describing the atrocities done by the farm agents and laborers who are entrusted with the farm labor. Malam Isa Birkila[7] explained that the most deceitful among the above mentioned atrocities is "Ҟaranta Taki" (applying little fertilizer). The menace makes crops (like maize) to "tsumbure" (become shot) and will not grow well to give the required yield. And, if it is rice, the whole farm will be reddish and will not produce good reap.
 3.6  Crops' Reaping Stage
"Girbi" is reaping or harvesting of crops (Bargery, 1993:388). The reaping of guinea- corns or millet or maize is done after stalks must have become partially dry. When cut from its standing posture, the corn stalks are laid down in rows (Abraham, 1987:947; Bargery, 1993:1028). Crops' harvesting stage is the most dramatic cheating stage for the farmers. It is the stage where by agents do a lot of havoc to owners of farms, which is said to be: "Ha'incin Aiki" or "Ha'incin Girbi" (bad grain harvest) (Gwajo-Gwajo, 2014:15). There is a Hausa proverb which testified that fact that harvesting of ripped farm products are done with the right tools, viz: "Allah tsari gatari da saran shuka (God forbid making harvest with an axe)(Malunfashi, 2014:121). So, it is an act of disheartening to use tools which are not meant for harvesting crops, to make harvest with it. But, laborers do these bad acts. The followings are some of the linguistic pointers describing the attitudes of the laborers employed to do the reaping job:
"A rore busasshe, a bar ɗanye "
                                (Plock the dried ones and leave the unripe)
"Roron farko na maigona ne, na biyu na wakili ne"
(The first picking is for the owner of the farm, while the second is for the agent)
"A ɗinke busasshe, a bar jinɓiri"
                                (Sacked the sundried ones and leave the un-sundried ones)
"Ɗora sankace kan wake" (Putting corn-stalk on beans leaves)
"Bukka kusa-kusa ( Keeping of harvested grain huts nearby)
"Danne kara ka wuce"(Matching on the corn stalks)
"Take Sankace"/"Taka-wuce"(Matching on the corn stalks)
"Girbin adda" (Matchet Harvest)
"Sari-Zubas" (Cut and throw away)
"Yanka-tsallake" (Cut and Jump)
The above linguistic pointers are making the farming stake holders to shy away from farming business in Malumfashi area. How dare you are? You are paid and entrusted with a farm and all the products in it, but you ended up in cheating the person who entrusted a lot of wealth into your hand. This is indeed frightening to the farming business.
3.7 Grain Collection Stage
Grain collection stage is the stage whereby ripped grains' heads are cut from its corn stalks and collected in one place, to make it ready for trashing and winnowing. ( Abraham, 1987:947;  Bargery,1993:1028). At this stage, like any other, farm agents and farm laborers, they also cheats farmers and other farming stake holders. Below are some utterances which are describing their attitudes, as thus:
"Mugun Yanka"/"Yankan ƙeta" (Bad cutting of corn head/
  Deliberate mischief/ wickedness)
"Tsallake Yanka" (Jumping some corn heads while cutting)
"Ɓoye Zangarniya" (Hiding corn heads)
"Tura zangarniya cikin jene" (Pushing down to hide a corn heads)
"Tsallake sankace" (Junping of corn band to avoid cutting some corn heads)
 
From the above, it can be observed that most of the utterances at this stage are those that show the attitudes of farm agents and laborers, who are conniving to steal the harvested grains entrusted to them by the owners of the farm. Research revealed that whichever way a farmer follow to prevent his farm agents or laborers from stealing his crops, cannot be possible, because they are expert in cheating their landlords.  Danhausa (2012:50), testified that: "Ai ko ana gayyar sara, an tsallake kuka" (Even in communal work, jumping of a row of harvested cornstalk, with its grain, is done). This means that, the whole Hausa society is aware of the linguistic pointers, such as: "Tsallake sankace" (Junping the laid down rows of corn stalks) and "Tsallake Yanka" (Jumping the cutting of corns' heads). Mal. Nurasuddeen Mu'azu  Rigar Alhaji Shehu Malumfashi[8] also testified that, most of the above mentioned pointers,  describes what laborers do to farmers.  They do that, to have left over of grains, which they will go back to re-harvest or to drag their animal to the farms, to eat the left over. This attitude is bringing a setback in farming business. Cheating does not make the farmers to have much gain in farming. The shift in trust between the farmers and their agents and laborers is becoming a threat to the existence of farming business in larger volume, by stake holders.
3.8 Stage of Threshing and Winnowing of Grains
Threshing of grains is called "Sussuka" in Hausa language (CNHN, 2006:403). It is an act of complete operation of threshing all the corns' heads required to be threshed (Bargery, 1993:964; Abraham, 1987:830).  While, on the other hand, winnowing is "Shiƙa" in Hausa language (Bargery, 1987:811). It is an act of raising calabash up, containing threshed grains, and blowing it in the air to remove the unwanted harsh (CNHN, 2006:412).
 Studies shows that, both the farm agents and laborers do many havoc to the farmer  (i.e stakeholders) at this stage (Mazugal, 2013:62). The following utterances are pointers to the conduct of these menaces to the stake holders in farming business:
"Satar hatsi" (Stilling of threshed grains)
"Shiƙar Banza" (Bad winnowing)
"Bakin shiƙa" (Remnant of sifted winnowed grains)
"Rairayen Shiƙa"(Sifted winnowed grains)
 
Alas! It is disheartening to put money in a business which the products are being stolen for you. Apart from all the havoc done to the owner of farm land, by his farm agents and laborers, at the end of it again, what is produced is being theft. This is a setback in farming profession in Malumfashi area.
 Apart from the above mentioned pointers, there is a Hausa proverb, which clearly indicates what most of the women laborer do, when they steal grains, during threshing or winnowing, as thus:
                    "Dakan ɗaka, shiƙar ɗaka,tankaɗen bakin  gado"
(Trashing in the room, sieving in the room and winnowing near the bed)
(Ɗanhausa, 2012:67).
 
This is indeed an action that needs to be checked for the survival of farming business in Malumfashi area and in Hausa land in general.
 
3.9 Stage of Carrying and Storing of Grains at Home
The stage of carrying and storing of the harvested grain is the final stage in farming life circle. Once crops of the farmers reach home, they feel at ease and blessed with what to eat and survived or what to sell and satisfy their needs. Farmers (stake holders in farming) are still not safe from the havoc of their farm agents or laborers in Malumfashi area. The following utterances are pointers to testify menace:
"Ɓoyen buhun hatsi" (hiding of grains' bag/s)
"Ɓoye masara cikin bukka" (Hiding of maize in stalks' hut)
"Wurga buhu” (Throwing of bags)
"Raina Sallama" (Undermining final gift).
 
Alas! The wise men are saying that: "once there is no trust, there is no life". In everything we do, we must trust each other for the benefit of our life.
By looking at this research one will get to understand that, the whole life circle of farming business is full of mistrust. This is bringing a setback in the business and hitch in the development of Malumfashi area and Hausa land in general.
4.0 Some Advises for Boosting the Farming Business.
The occupation of farming is a very important business in Hausa land. It is the only business which both the poor and rich ones can be able to without any fear or favor. In Malumfashi, just like in any other place in Hausa land, it is believed that every household and family practice farming business and that is why farming has various praise epithets as thus:
"Noma na duƙe tsohon ciniki,
Kowa ya zo duniya kai ya tarar."
 
(i.e Farming, the bending down old business,
                    (Whoever comes to this world, mate it being practiced?)
( Bunza, 2006:47; Rimmer, 2009:40; Zarruƙ, 1987:26).
                                                                 or
"Gadon gida alala ga raggo,
Kowa ya bar gida, gida ya bar shi."
                      (A home-inherited business, said by the lazy person)
                    (He who ignores home, home ignores him)
                       (Rimmer, 2009:49;  Bunza, 2006:xxvi)
                             
Even in oral literature, which is said to be the first literature in Africa, (Malumfashi, 2009:26), the Hausa oral singers intensifies the importance of farming among the Hausa people, as thus:
Lead         :Wanda ba ya noma, nan duniya,
                                      :Ko da riƙon aure zai mai wuya,
                                     (He who does not farm in this world,
                                     Cannot be able to support a family)
                                    (Shehu Ajilo:Waƙar Noma) (Tahir, 2011:87)
 
  Therefore, farmers (stakeholders) are hereby call upon to be patient of all the backwardness, shifts in trust and all the bad happening to farming business. Rimmer (2009:50) supports the fact that, it is only the patient ones that can reap the gains in farming business. Farmers should therefore not allow the unwanted attitudes of their agents and labourers to scare them away from doing the business. Even though, some writers like Darma (2014:5) and Kallah (2014:10) testified that, there many cries of lost in farming due to the shifts in trust, but farmers should be patient and continue to devise means of checking the menace, instead of running away from farming business.
On the other, the  farm agents andlaborer should fear God and stop doing the havocs they do to the farmers and other stake holders in farming business. Gwajo-Gwajo[9] (2014:15) also supported the fact that laborers should know that, whatever havoc they do to farmers, they must pay for the consequences, in front of God, on the day of judgments.
Finally, religious leaders should intensify on preaching on the importance of trust, most especially between farmers and their agents and laborers. Declining in farming business is bringing setbacks in food productions in Malumfashi and Hausa land in general. Without abundance in food, the prices of food products will be high and this can bring about inflation in the Hausa land.
5.0 Conclusion
Tikumah (2009:11), paraphrased that a societal problems are undesirable situation or condition which usually results from interaction between two or more people. This paper studied the bridge of trust between two categories of people, namely the farmers, who are stake holders and owners of farmlands, and the agents and/or laborers who work for the farmers on their farm land. It studied the utterances which are linguistic pointers causing the shifts in the trust between the farmers and their agents or laborers. These linguistic pointers were studied in nine stages of farming life circle, namely clearing stage, ridges making stage, crop sowing stage, weeding stage, fertilizer application stage, crops' reaping stage, the stage of cutting and collection of corns' head, threshing and winnowing stage and finally, the stage of carrying and storing of grains at home. The papers also gave some advises which will be a way forward for the boosting of farming business in Malumfashi area. Finally, the research was concluded in a nut shell.
References
Abraham, R. C. (1987), Dictionary of the Hausa Language. University of Landon
Press LTD, London.
Ado, A. (1987), "Hausa Language Speech Usage Norms: A Case Study of Maguzawa
Society in Malumfashi Area." A dissertation Submitted to the Department of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University, Kano, In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in Hausa Language. Department of Nigerian Languages, Bayero University, Kano-Nigeria.
Ado, A. (2009), "Gardancin Hausawa Jiya Da Yau". M.A. A dissertation Submitted to
the Postgraduate School in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the award of the Degree of Masters of Atrs  (Hausa Studies), Department of Nigerian Languages, Usmanu Ɗanfodiyu University, Sokoto-Nigeria.
Ado, A. (2009), "Wasan Kara A Ҟasar Katsina: Yadda Ake Gudanar Da shi A Garin
Malumfashi". Takardar Da Aka Gabatar A Taron Ҟara Wa Juna Sani A Ranar Alhamis, 31 ga watan Disamba, 2009, A Sashen Shen Harsunan Nijeria, Jami'ar Umaru Musa Yar'adua, Katsina-Nijeriya.
Ado, A. (2011), "Almajiranci: Ҟashin Bayan Neman Ilimin Addinin Musulunci A
Ҟasar Hausa". Al-Hikmah Journal of Islamic Studies. Vol.1 No.1 January, 2012. Department of Islamic Studies, Umaru Musa Yar'adua University, Katsina-Nigeria.
Alhassan, et al (1982), Zaman Hausawa. Bugu na Biyu. Institute of Education,
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria-Nigeria.
Babatunde, S. T., et al (2007), "A Sociolinguistic Analysis of Selected Nigerian
English (N.E.) Metaphors", Sociolinguistics In The Nigerian Context.Vol.1. Obafemi Awolowo University Press Ltd, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Bako,H. (2014), "Shirin Songhai Shifka Ce Da Za Ta Ba Da Yabanya A Jihar
Katsina", Mujallar Manoma:…Gada Tsakanin Masana Da Makiyaya Da Manona. Fitowa ta 3, Afrilu-Yuni,2014. Kamfanin Fine Ark Co. Ltd, Katsina-Nijeriya.
Bargery, G. P. (1993), A Hausa-English Dictionary And English-Hausa Vocabulary.
Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited, Zaria-Nigeria.
Bunza, A. M. (2006), Gadon Feɗe Al'ada.Jerin Littattafan Cibiyar Nazarin Al'adun
Hausawa.Tiwal Nigeria LTD, Surulere, Lagos, Nigeria.
Bunza, A.M. (2014), "Wauta A Tunanin Bahaushe". Takardar da aka gabatar a taron
ƙara wa juna sani na  ranar 18/06/2014, a Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya,Tsangayar Fasaha, Jami'ar Umaru Musa Yar'adua, Katsina-Nijeriya
Charanci,R. (1999), Katsina Ɗakin Kara: Tarihin Katsina Da Garuruwanta. Northen
Nigeria Publishing Company Limited, Zaria.
CNHN (2006), Ҟamusun Hausa Na Jami'ar Bayero. Cibiyar Nazarin Harsunan
Nijeriya, Jami'ar Bayero, Kano-Nijeriya.
Ɗanhausa, A. M. (2012), Hausa Mai Dubun Hikima.Century Research and Publishing
Company, Kano-Nigeria.
Darma, M.M.(2014), "A Tallafa Wa Mujallar Manoma", Mujallar Manoma: …
GadaTsakanin Masana Da Makiyaya Da Manoma. Fitowa ta 3. Kamfanin Fine Ark Co. Ltd, Katsina-Nijeriya.
Funtua, A. I. (2010), "Bukukuwa", Al'adu Da Ɗabi'un Hausawa Da Fulani. El-Abbas
Printers and Media Concepts, Kaduna-Nigeria.
Fellmann, J. O., et al (2010), Human Geography: Landscapes of Human
Activites.Eleven Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, United States of America.
Furniss, G. (1997), Poetry, Prose and Popular Culture In Hausa. Edinburgh
University Press for the International African Institute, London.
Getis, A., et al (2011), Introduction to Geography. Thirteen Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, United States of America.
Gwajo-Gwajo, A.Y.U (2014), "Ҟungiyar Manoma Na Gaskiya Ta Haɗa Dukkan
Manoma", Mujallar Manoma: … GadaTsakanin
Masana Da Makiyaya Da Manoma. Fitowa ta 3, Afrilu-Yuni,2014.Kamfanin Fine Ark Co. Ltd, Katsina-Nijeriya.
Isa, A. (2014), "Fitaccen Manomi",  Mujallar Manoma: … GadaTsakanin Masana Da
Makiyaya Da Manoma. Fitowa ta 3, Afrilu-Yuni,2014.Kamfanin Fine Ark Co. Ltd, Katsina-Nijeriya.
Kallah, S. (2014), "Noman-Rani: Maganin Gararamba Da Zaman Kashe Wando",
Mujallar Manoma: … GadaTsakanin Masana Da Makiyaya Da Manoma. Fitowa ta 3, Afrilu-Yuni,2014.Kamfanin Fine Ark Co. Ltd, Katsina-Nijeriya.
Ҟanƙara, I. N. (1991), Tarihin Zuri'ar Galadanci Danejin Katsina Da Kano.
Hudahuda Publishing Company Limited, Zaria-Nigeria.
Malumfashi, S.D.A. (2006), Jinkau Birnin Dawa:Tarihin Kafuwar
Malumfashi.Gidan Dabino Publishers, Kano-Nigeria.
Malumfashi, I. (2009), Adabin Abubakar Imam.Garguwa Media Services LTD,
Sokoto-Nigeria.
Malumfashi, I. et al (2014), Ҟamusun Karin Maganar Hausa.  Garkuwa Publications
Sokoto. Makarantar Malam Bambadiya, Kaduna-Nijeriya
Mamman, M.M. et al (1996), Garuruwan Jihar Katsina 1.Hukumar Binciken Tarihi
Da Kyautata Al'adu Ta Jihar Katsina, Katsina-Nijeriya.
Mani, A. (2007), Zuwan Turawa Nijeriya Ta Arewa. Northern Nigerian Publishing
Company Ltd, Zaria-Nigeria.
Mazugal, B.A. (2013), Fundamentals of Enterpreneurship. National Association of
Katsina State Students (NAKATSS) (UMYUK CHAPTER) 2012/2013, Umaru Musa Yar'adua University, Katsina
Rimmer, E.M. et al (2009), Zaman Mutum Da Sana'arsa.Northern Nigerian
Publishing Company LTD, Zaria-Nigeria.
Tahir, M.R. (2011), "Tasirin Musulunci A Waƙoƙin Baka Na Hausa", Waƙoƙin Baka
Na Hausa.Centuary Research and Publishing Limited, Abuja-Nigeria.
Tikumah, I.H. (2009), An Introduction to the Study of Problems In Society for
Tertiary Students in Nigeria. Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited, Zaria, Kaduna State-Nigeria.
Usman, Y.B. (1981), The Transformation of Katsina: (1400-1883)The  Emergence
and Overthrow of the Sarauta System and Establishment of the Emirate. Ahmadu Bello University Press LTD, Zaria-Nigeria.
Yakasai,S.A. (2012), Jagoran Ilimin Walwalar Harshe. IBM Printers, Kaduna-
Nijeriya.
Zarruƙ, R. M. et al (1987), Sabuwar Hanyar Nazarin Hausa Don Ҟananan
Makarantun Sakandare. Littafi na Biyu. University Press Limited, Ibadan- Nigeria.
 
[1]  Mal. Inusa Mai Kifi is a farm agent who lives at Sabon Garin Borin Dawa Malumfashi. He is of about 45 years. The information was gotten from him on Friday, 18th July, 2014.
[2] Malam Abdulbasir  Kwarsu is a farm agent who lives i Kwarsu, a villge in Malumfashi Local Government. He is of about 50 years. He gave the information on 24th July, 2014.
[3] Alhaji Bello Cumas is a rich man who has a Trailer Vehicle engaging in carrying of goods from Lagos to Kano. he is of about 52 years who left farming because of the various cheat involves in doing it. The information were gotten from him on 21st July, at office of Road Transport Association, Malumfashi.
[4]  Alhaji Rabi'u is rich farmer who has at least tem farmlands which he cultivates every year. He is of about 63 years. He gave the information at his shop at the Malumfashi Central Market on Friday, 5th July, 2014.
[5] Mal. Tsalha is a cotton agent who buys cotton for Kano rich merchants. He is of about 56 years of age. The facts were gotten from him on 20th July, at Ҟafur Market.
[6] Malam Shamsudden is a Fulani youth who engages in reaping work and cutting off of grain heads w and does many atrocities to favor himself and his cows by hiding grains'/corns' heads under the rows of cut corns. He is of about 25 years. The information was gotten from him on Friday, 25th July, 2014, at the Grains Market, in Malumfashi Central Market.
[7] Malam Isa Birkila is a farmer who owns about seven large farmlands at Agagiwa village. He is of about 65 years. The information was gotten from him on 24th July 2014, at his House at Dam Side, Malumfashi.
[8] Mal. Nurassuddeen is a Fulani youth of about 28 years who lives in Rigar Alhaji Shehu and always follows from one farm to another asking for free cutting of corn heads to take the corn stalks in return. The information was retrieved from him on 21st July, at Mararrabar Ҟanƙara Market.
[9] Hon. Alhaji Ya'u Umar Gwajo-Gwajo was the Speaker of the State House of Assembly in Katsina State and a tycoon in farming business.